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Dandruff is the most common condition affecting the scalp.
The skin cells on the scalp are constantly renewing and the old cells get pushed to the surface by the new ones. If you have dandruff, the process of skin renewal (or skin turnover) speeds up to twice the normal rate, so a greater number of dead cells are shed.
The scalp becomes scaly and the skin cells shed and collect in clumps. They are noticeable when brushing the hair and can gather on the shoulders.
The condition mostly occurs after puberty, usually between the ages of 20 and 30, (1) and affects males more than females.
Dandruff responds very well to treatment, but will commonly recur if treatment is stopped.